AskDefine | Define scone

The Collaborative Dictionary

Scone \Scone\, n. A cake, thinner than a bannock, made of wheat or barley or oat meal. [Written variously, scon, skone, skon, etc.] [Scot.] --Burns. [1913 Webster]

Word Net

scone n : small biscuit (rich with cream and eggs) cut into diamonds or sticks and baked in an oven or (especially originally) on a griddle

Moby Thesaurus

Danish, Danish pastry, English muffin, Parker House roll, Yorkshire pudding, bagel, bialy, bialystoker, bun, clover-leaf roll, coffee cake, crescent roll, croissant, cross bun, crumpet, gem, hard roll, hot cross bun, kaiser roll, muffin, onion roll, pinwheel roll, popover, roll, soft roll
see Scone

English

Pronunciation

  • /skəʊn/ or /skɒn/
  • /sk@Un/ or /skQn/
  • Rhymes: -ɒn

Noun

  1. A small, rich, pastry or quick bread, sometimes baked on a griddle
  2. In the context of "Utah": fry-bread served with honey butter spread on the cooked bread
Scone (Modern Gaelic: Sgàin; Medieval: Scoine; IPA: [skʊn]) is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. The medieval village of Scone, which grew up around the monastery and royal residence, was abandoned in the early 19th century when a new palace was built on the site by the Earl of Mansfield. Hence the modern village of New Scone, and the medieval village of Old Scone, can often be distinguished. Today, New Scone is simply called Scone; it has a population of over 4000 people and is essentially a suburb of Perth.
Both sites lie in the historical province of Gowrie. Old Scone was the historic capital of the Kingdom of Alba (Scotland). In the Middle Ages it was an important royal centre, used as a royal residence and as the coronation site of the kingdom's monarchs. Around the royal site grew the town of Perth and the Abbey of Scone.

Scone and Scotland

In Gaelic poetry Scone's association with kings and king-making gave it various poetic epithets, for instance, Scoine sciath-airde, "Scone of the high shields", and Scoine sciath-bhinne, "Scone of the noisy shields" Scotland itself was often called the "Kingdom of Scone", "Righe Sgoinde". A comparison would be that Ireland was often called the "Kingdom of Tara", Tara, like Scone, serving as a ceremonial inauguration site. Scone was therefore the closest thing the Kingdom of Scotland had in its earliest years to a "capital". In either 1163 or 1164 King Máel Coluim IV described Scone Abbey as in principali sede regni nostri, that is, "in the principal seat of our kingdom". By this point in time, however, the rule of the King of the Scots was not confined to the Kingdom of Scotland, which then only referred to Scotland north of the river Forth. The king also ruled in Lothian, Strathclyde and the Honour of Huntingdon, and spent much of his time in these localities too. Moreover, the king was itinerant and had little permanent bureaucracy, so that any idea that Scone was a "capital" in the way the word is used today can make very little sense in this period; but in the medieval sense Scone can in many ways be called the "capital of Scotland".

Later history

Although Scone retained its role in royal inaugurations, Scone's role as effective "capital" declined in the later Middle Ages. The abbey itself though enjoyed mixed fortunes. It suffered a fire in the twelfth century and was subject to extensive attacks during the First War of Scottish Independence. It also suffered, as most Scottish abbeys in the period did, decline in patronage. The abbey became a pilgrimage centre for St Fergus, whose head it kept as a relic, and retained older festivals and fame for musical excellence. In the sixteenth century the Scottish Reformation ended the importance of all monasteries in Scotland, and in June 1559 the abbey was attacked by reformers and it was burned down. Some of the monks continued on at the abbey, but by the end of the century monastic life had disappeared and continued to function only as a parish church. In 1581 Scone was placed in the new Earldom of Gowrie, created for William Ruthven. The latter was forfeited after the Gowrie conspiracy of 1600, but in 1606 was given to David Murray, newly created Lord Scone, who in 1621 was promoted to Viscount Stormont. The abbey/palace evidently remained in a decent state, as the Viscounts apparently did some rebuilding and continued to reside there, and it continued to play host to important guests, such as King Charles II, when he was crowned there (indoors) in 1651. It was not until 1803 that the family (now Earls of Mansfield) began constructing another palace at the cost of £70,000, commissioning the renowned English architect William Atkinson.

Modern town

Constructing the new palace meant destroying the old town and moving its inhabitants to a new settlement. The new village was constructed in 1805 as planned town, and originally called New Scone. It lies 2km to the west of the old location and 1½ km further from Perth. Until 1997 the town was called "New Scone", but is now referred to simply as Scone. The town had 4,430 inhabitants according to the 2001 Census for Scotland, 84.33% of whom are Scottish; it is demographically old even compared with the rest of Scotland.
The site of Old Scone is mostly in the grounds of the modern palace. The latter is a popular tourist attraction. Visitors come to see the gardens in the palace grounds, the exotic birds which roam freely in the grounds, Moot Hill, which lies in the grounds, as well as the palace itself.

Notes

References

  • Barrow, G.W.S. (ed.), The Acts of Malcolm IV King of Scots 1153-1165, Together with Scottish Royal Acts Prior to 1153 not included in Sir Archibald Lawrie's '"Early Scottish Charters", (Regesta Regum Scottorum vol. i, Edinburgh, 1960)
  • Barrow, G.W.S., "The Removal of the Stone and Attempts at Recovery, to 1328", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p.
  • Binchy, D.A., "Fair of Tailtiu and the Feast of Tara", in Ériu, vol. 18 (1958), pp. 113-38
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Origins of the Stone of Scone as a National Icon", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 183-97
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "King-Making and Images of Kingship in Medieval Gaelic Literature", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 85-105
  • Cowan, Ian B. & Easson, David E., Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland With an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, (London, 1976), pp. 97-8
  • Duncan, A.A.M., "Before Coronation: Making a King at Scone in the 13th century", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 139-67
  • Fawcett, Richard, "The Buildings of Scone Abbey", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 169-80
  • FitzPatrick, Elizabeth, "Leaca and Gaelic Inauguration Ritual in Medieval Ireland", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 107-21
  • Lawrie, Sir Archibald, Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, (Glasgow, 1905)
  • McNeill, Peter G.B., and MacQueen, Hector L., (eds.), Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, (Edinburgh, 1996)
  • O'Meara, John J. (ed.), Gerald of Wales: The History and Topography of Ireland, (London, 1951)
  • Skene, William F. (ed.), Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots and Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867)
  • Skene, William F., "The Coronation Stone", in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 8 (1868-70), pp. 68-99
  • Spearman, R.M., "The Medieval Townscape of Perth", in Michael Lynch, Michael Spearman & Geoffrey Stell (eds.), The Medieval Scottish Town'', (Edinburgh, 1988), pp. 42-59
scone in German: Scone (Perth and Kinross)
scone in Spanish: Scone (Escocia)
scone in French: Scone
scone in Italian: Scone
scone in Hungarian: Scone
scone in Dutch: Scone
scone in Norwegian: Scone (Perthshire)
scone in Simple English: Scone, Perth and Kinross
scone in Chinese: 斯昆
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